Environmental Design in Dementia Care
Published: 07 September 2022
Published: 07 September 2022
A person is only as restricted as their environment causes them to be.
Cognitive capacities are impacted when a person develops dementia. As a result, physical and social environments become increasingly difficult to navigate.
Because of this, care and thought must be applied to the design of environments for people with dementia.
Environmental consideration should be an important factor to the provision of care. Environmental design for residents with dementia is directly tied to Aged Care Quality Standards: Standard 5: Organisation’s Service Environment.
In a residential aged care context, environmental design is the ordering of small and large scale aspects of the environment by means of architecture, engineering, landscape architecture and planning (Collins Dictionary 2022). This article will also address interior design.
Good environmental design can assist a resident in finding their way around, as well as reduce confusion and increase independence.
A design-for-dementia framework requires a change in the way we think about illness. Rather than believing that a person will naturally become more limited as their dementia progresses, we can think about how that person is more limited by their environment than by their illness - put another way, a person is only as restricted as their environment causes them to be.
An accessible, engaging environment may also promote visitors to the facility; some facilities have been known to make additional considerations for grandchildren. Thoughtful design has the added benefit of being easier to navigate for staff as well (IRT 2022).
Environmental design modification has been shown to reduce agitation and frustration in residents living with dementia (IRT 2022).
When designing for dementia, it’s unwise to choose boring, bland and repetitive environments - in fact, these might prove to be more confusing for residents (Keast 2016).
The key to all design choices is to have every decision guided by the intention to create meaningful and relevant environments to residents.
Examples of design modifications for effective dementia care include:
A well-designed environment can lead to visible enhancements in:
(Fleming & Bennet 2017)
People are able to recognise and understand their environment, which:
People are able to understand where they are and where they need to go, which prevents and/or alleviates:
Distinctiveness aids our ability to concentrate and pay attention. Distinctiveness in a neighbourhood encourages:
Residents are able to reach, enter, use and move around places or spaces they need to, regardless of physical, sensory or cognitive impairment, which:
Residents feel relaxed and able to visit, use and enjoy spaces of their choice, which:
Residents are allowed to move around, use and enjoy the neighbourhood without fear of harm, which:
(Fleming & Bennet 2017)
The six considerations above should be guided by the following six principles, which have been developed by Dementia Training Australia through research and local and international case studies:
Residents require environments that are, above all, easy and safe to move around in if their independence and daily freedom is to be enabled. However, safety measures should blend seamlessly into the environment. Safety features such as gates or fences should be unobtrusive to prevent resident frustration.
The feelings and behaviours of people with dementia can be greatly affected by the size and scale of a building. Three factors are particularly important here:
Considerations are to be made to reduce the risk of a resident being intimidated or confronted by their environment, interactions and number of choices.
The environment should be easily understood by residents. It is crucial that a resident can recognise where they are, where they’ve come from and where they are going. Residents are more able to make choices about the directions they want to go in when they can easily see key places such as the lounge room, dining room, bedroom, kitchen and outdoors. Visual access is essential to allowing a resident to explore their environment.
Dementia limits a person’s ability to filter stimulation and focus on what is important. Because of this, a person with dementia will become stressed when over-stimulated. Therefore, the environment should be designed in a way that minimises stimuli that is not helpful to the resident, for example, clutter and posters.
Minimise uncertainty by ensuring a person with dementia can see, hear and smell things that provide cues about where they are and where they can go. Text and imagery in signs is an example of a helpful cue, as well as familiar objects used to orientate a resident. Creating cues that will engage and assist residents requires care and thought.
Purposeful movement has the ability to increase engagement in residents and help to maintain their health and wellbeing. This is achieved by providing well-defined pathways, without obstacles or complex decision points. These pathways should be both internal and external, and guide people to points of interest and facilitate opportunities for activities and social interaction.
A person with dementia will benefit from using and enjoying spaces and objects that are familiar to them from their life before dementia. The resident should be involved in the process of decorating their spaces with familiar objects. They should be allowed input into elements such as design, furniture, fittings and colours.
As is the case with any individual, a person with dementia holds the right to decide when they would like to be alone, and when they would like to be with others. To facilitate this, their environment should have a variety of spaces, some dedicated for quiet, close conversations, some for socialising in larger groups, and others where people can be alone.
Frequent interaction with friends may help a person with dementia to maintain their identity in the wake of their illness. Visitors should feel encouraged to drop by regularly and enjoy their visit to the facility. As stigma is a persistent problem for people who have dementia, the unit should blend into the community seamlessly and not stand out as a ‘special unit’.
The building should embody the philosophy of care. The way this is conveyed, the lifestyle it promotes, and daily function of the facility will vary, but at its core, residents will be made to feel comfortable and empowered in a home-like environment. The environment will be one that constantly reminds staff of the values and practices that are required of them, and they will have the tools they need to carry out their job.
(Fleming & Bennet 2017; Dementia Australia 2022)
Consider the following:
Question 1 of 3
True or false: A person with dementia will benefit from using and enjoying spaces and objects that are familiar to them from their life before dementia.