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Back in 2003, an extraordinary step for medicine and long-awaited scientific feat was accomplished. Scientists had drawn up a complete road map of the human genome. The Human Genome Project, which took 14 years to complete, delivered a genetic blueprint for the 20 000 genes contained within the DNA code, giving scientists unprecedented insight into its complexity. Over the last decade, several international projects have been launched to sequence and compare thousands of human genomes, spanning multiple ethnic and geographical populations. This technology fast-tracked the detection of genes, or more often, sets of genes, that are associated with disease traits.
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