Telehealth Communication Skills
Published: 13 May 2020
Published: 13 May 2020
The following article is designed to complement A Guide to Video Telehealth Consultations.
Evolution often arises during times of crisis such as the current COVID-19 pandemic. New technologies are already emerging along with more cost-effective, resource-sparing ways of working remotely.
Telehealth is one such example that is currently transforming the healthcare landscape. Driven by the need for social distancing, it offers safe and practical access to cost-effective, quality remote care.
As Rutledge et al. (2017) suggest, telehealth technology can offer many benefits across a broad spectrum of healthcare needs. Patient access to care and advice can be increased whilst costs are decreased, and for those patients who need frequent input or daily monitoring, it can offer significant peace of mind, immediate feedback on wellbeing and the convenience of easy scheduling and attendance of appointments (Bashir 2018).
Not only does telehealth provide easier access to care, but it’s also been shown to increase patient involvement and improve self-care for patients with chronic health complaints, or those who may be transitioning from hospital to home (Day, Millner and Johnson 2016).
Misremembering or misunderstanding information from a healthcare consultation is a common problem, with an estimated 40 to 80% of information either forgotten immediately or remembered incorrectly.
As Morony et al. (2018) suggest, this is a problem that only gets worse for telephone consultations, given that up to 55% of the impact for in-person consultations can be attributed to visual and non-verbal communication.
It’s not surprising then, that telephone consultations involve more frequent patient requests for information to be repeated. This can be a particular challenge for people who may be experiencing high levels of anxiety during the call, or may be suffering from some level of cognitive impairment.
In other words, the value of a telephone consultation becomes questionable if callers immediately forget or misinterpret the information or instructions they have been given (Morony et al. 2018).
General challenges to effective phone communication include:
(Rothwell et al. 2011)
Despite these obvious challenges, use of the telephone to provide remote health care is set to grow given the current shift from in-person to remote consultations. However, there is now a growing need to match the use of technology with improved training in telephone communication skills.
As telehealth technologies begin to emerge as a potential solution to social distancing, much of the training that is being offered centres around the technical aspect.
Training on soft skills or ‘screen side etiquette’ - which is so important for a successful consultation - is less common, yet the argument could be made that advanced communication skills are needed more than ever to compensate for a lack of visual cues.
For example, Morony et al. (2018) describe a communication technique called Teach-Back in which patients are invited to explain back, using their own words, the information or action plans discussed with the healthcare provider.
It’s an example of an interactive communication loop that places the responsibility of ensuring information has been correctly understood with the telehealth professional.
As the many potential benefits of telehealth are explored, several key benefits are emerging:
To maximise the effectiveness of remote consultations, van Galen et al. (2018) stress the need for a clear set of telehealth communication competencies as many health care professionals are not yet trained, or are insufficiently trained, to use these new technologies effectively.
Key skills that are emerging as important competencies for nurses that provide telehealth include:
(van Houwelingen et al. 2016)
As telehealth becomes a larger part of the health care landscape, clinicians are preparing to operate technology-based systems for conducting routine care and exchanging information.
Less well-defined are the interpersonal skills needed for the delivery of telehealth care, for example, enhanced communication skills that can help build therapeutic relationships and optimise outcomes.
Based on recent research conducted by Henry et al. (2018), several themes were identified as being important for establishing a therapeutic relationship or ‘telepresence’. They include:
Many competencies needed for telehealth such as good communication skills and clinical knowledge are already a fundamental part of nursing care, but within these broad skills new and specific competencies are emerging, for example:
Perhaps one of the main benefits of telehealth is enhanced patient participation in their own self-care. As the focus of control shifts from the practitioner to the patient, it becomes easier for patients to feel more involved in decision making and self-care planning.
As Day, Millner and Johnson (2016) suggest, many patients also report understanding their health issues more clearly.
With any new technology, challenges can and do occur. For example, it may be much harder to ensure a patient’s right to privacy, physical examinations cannot be performed, key information may be lost and mistakes in differential diagnosis may become more common. As Morony et al. (2018) point out, issues of patient safety in telehealth are still largely unexplored, and just because the current need for social distancing makes telehealth an ‘ideal solution’ at the moment, the need for in-depth research shouldn’t be ignored.
As van Houwelingen et al. (2016) note, new competencies will be needed to guide future training, but once they have been established, telehealth has enormous potential to address the increasing demand for care alongside an under-resourced workforce.
At its best, telemedicine has the potential to offer outstanding and cost-effective care. It can help improve self-care, facilitate information delivery and enhance the nurse-patient relationship.
All of these benefits must still be measured against the risks and challenges of remote care and the absence of physical examinations. Yet, for patients who feel vulnerable, unsafe or unsupported, the extra reassurance and support that can come from a short telephone call can be a game changer.
Anne is a freelance lecturer and medical writer at Mind Body Ink. She is a former midwife and nurse teacher with over 25 years’ experience working in the fields of healthcare, stress management and medical hypnosis. Her background includes working as a hospital midwife, Critical Care nurse, lecturer in Neonatal Intensive Care, and as a Clinical Nurse Specialist for a company making life support equipment. Anne has also studied many forms of complementary medicine and has extensive experience in the field of clinical hypnosis. She has a special interest in integrating complementary medicine into conventional healthcare settings and is currently an Associate Tutor, lecturing in Health Coaching and Medical Hypnosis at Exeter University in the UK. As a former Midwife, Anne has a natural passion for writing about fertility, pregnancy, birthing and baby care. Her recent publications include The Health Factor, Coach Yourself To Better Health and Positive Thinking For Kids. You can read more about her work at www.MindBodyInk.com. See Educator Profile