What Is Increased Intracranial Pressure?
Increased intracranial pressure (ICP) can occur as a complication of surgery, a sign of a brain tumour, as a consequence of infection or maybe even as a subarachnoid haemorrhage from a fall.
The skull is filled with brain matter, intravascular blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and a process of auto-regulation allows these components to adjust to each other, which maintains a level ICP. When any of these volumes stop being regulated, pressure builds inside of the skull, resulting in increased ICP (John Hopkins Medicine 2016).
What Causes Increased ICP?
There are many potential causes of a raised ICP, these include:
- Increases in CSF
- Head injuries
- Infections such as encephalitis or meningitis
- Epilepsy and seizures
(John Hopkins Medicine 2016)
Signs and Symptoms
Consideration must be given to determine if the symptoms a patient is demonstrating can be attributed to another condition such as a stroke, or if they are a consequence of increased ICP.
The signs of increased ICP include:
- Restlessness and irritability
- Increased blood pressure
- Decreased mental abilities
- Confusion about time, location and people as the pressure worsens
- Double vision
- Pupils that don’t respond to changes in light
- Shallow breathing
- Decreased level of consciousness
Cushing’s triad is seen when increased ICP decreases the cerebral blood flow significantly. A response is triggered that increases arterial pressure in order to overcome the increased ICP. The signs of Cushing’s triad are:
- Hypertension and a widening pulse pressure (the difference between the systolic and diastolic BP)
At this point, if treatment does not occur to stabilise the ICP, herniation of the brain stem and occlusion of the cerebral blood flow can occur with dire consequences (Farrell & Dempsey 2013).
Management of Increased ICP
A compensatory mechanism does exist in the event of a slow compression of the brain. This includes adjustments such as veins compressing, CSF volume reducing and cerebral blood flow decreasing. However these compensatory mechanisms only help for a certain amount of time (Farrell & Dempsey 2013).
There are several modes of treatment which aim to reverse the causes of the increased ICP. They include:
Surgery such as a craniotomy is advised as soon as possible on people who are significantly neurologically compromised as it results in a rapid decompression of the brain (Rangel-Castilla 2016).
Hyperventilation can be used, however the findings for this mode of treatment are mixed and some studies have shown that patients who were hyperventilated had worse outcomes then those who weren’t (Rangel-Castilla 2016).
Mannitol can also be used and works through osmotic diuresis, that is it draws the oedema out of the cerebral tissues to decrease ICP. It also improves blood flow and can be used in patients with severe traumatic brain injuries. However it needs to be monitored carefully (Rangel-Castilla 2016).
Nursing Management Of An Increased ICP
By closely monitoring our patients who may be at risk of raised ICP we can detect any changes promptly and therefore improve patient outcomes with early treatment interventions.
The nurse must monitor and report any early signs and symptoms of increasing ICP which can be done by regularly attending to neurological observations on the patient. These signs include:
- Disorientation, restlessness, mental confusion, purposeless movements
- Pupillary changes and impaired extraocular movements
- Weakness in one extremity or hemiplegia
- Headache, constant in nature, increasing in intensity and aggravated by movement or straining
(Farrell & Dempsey 2013)
If the patient’s condition progresses, the symptoms may worsen to:
- Deterioration in level of consciousness
- Cushing’s triad
- Altered respiratory patterns including Cheyne-Stokes breathing
- Loss of brain stem reflexes (pupillary, corneal, gag and swallowing reflexes)
(Farrell & Dempsey 2013)
If your patient is suspected of having an increased ICP, methods to reduce the pressure from increasing further include elevating the patient’s head to thirty degrees, keeping their neck in a neutral position, avoid over hydration, maintain a normal body temperature and maintain a normal oxygen and carbon dioxide level (Sippel 2011).
Increased ICP can be managed in many ways including through medical and surgical interventions. As nurses we need to ensure we are assessing and monitoring our patients for any potential changes to ICP and reporting these changes promptly for early interventions to be implemented and to improve patient outcomes.
- Carey, E 2015, ‘Increased Intracranial Pressure’, Health Line, viewed 21 May 2016
- Farrell, M & Dempsey J (eds) 2013, Smeltzer & Bare’s Textbook of Medical-Surgical Nursing, 3rd edn, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, Broadway
- John Hopkins Medicine 2016, Increased Intracranial Pressure (ICP) Headache, viewed 21 May 2016, http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/healt…headache_134,67/
- Rangel-Castilla, L 2016, ‘Closed head injury treatment and management’, Medscape, viewed 21 May 2016, http://www.emedicine.medscape.com/article/…owall
- Sippel, R 2011, ‘Intracranial pressure and the Cushing Reflex’, EMSWorld, viewed 21 May 2016, http://www.emsworld.com/article/10453…response